Dr. Sherajul I. Shelley: I am a professional research scientist having more than 35 years experience in the different countries of the world studied Timiryazev agricultural academy OF Moscow USSR Academy of sciences and Patrice lummumba university studed biological sciences and agronomy sciences agricultyral sciens has great knowledge in different field of sciences and am selected Member of royal society of biology MRSB and seleted candidate Fellowship royal society FRSB.and always worked with a team of outstanding scientist to identify the best techniques to preserve fruits and vegetables and raw materials for different industrial process materials and maintain their better quality by nonchemical treatments .toxin free treatments . this is unique group , whose goal is to provide the USA people super quality products which is better for good health and for hope of better hhealthy life of the American people , because of my unique skill in complex techniques and dedicated efforts over the 18 yin USAservicess , I have helped to identify the best methods to prevent products diseases nand identify pathogens , disorders and preserve their quality and to determine their quality nondestructively. over the next several years using nondestructive quality measurements techniques ,we will be able to evaluate products quality very quckly which is labor and time intensive as wqell as inexpensive . we will have significantdemand for export of products to different countries and the europea countries. this may help to reduce the trade deficit with respective countries. In addition to preserve materials quality and public health and economic factor, my contribution directly creates technical jobs ,helps private sector for products companies to develop good cultivar, protect environmental pollution by avoiing sysnthetic chemicas and using natural resourcesTrying to predict the future of anything’s in life is sheer folly. On the other hand, if it were completely impossible to make an educated guess about what the future holds, our lives would be chaotic. as humans, we naturally find pattners in the world around us that allow us to determine how events are likely to unfold .if I plug in the kettle it will boil if I turn the ignition key my car will start ,etc, science is really about making careful observations of the past and present to make predictions as accurately as possible, about the future .we know that if we turn the ignition key in our car , it will activities the electrical system and starter motor, which will turn over the engine , causing compression of combustibles in the cylinders which will turn the drive shaft, which will turn the wheels ,we know that turning the steering wheel will have predictable results concluded all scientist and hope?
Predicting what will happen to individual share prices or overall stock indices, however, is not a science . if it were as predictable as the workings of a car, wewould all be rich . forcasting thr future of biotechnology is even more hazards. some factors–such as the fact that the populations is getting older-are more knowable than others –whether gene therapies will become an important , widely used treatment for cancer.
Therefore, I urge caution before reading too much into what I write in this project . it is an educated guess, but a guess all the same.
This project was written during the weeks followings this terrorist attacks on the world trade center and pentagon. I remember where I was on the morning of September 11, 2001 and I imagine you do, also I will never forget the phone ringing a little earlier than I would have liked it to.
It was my one known person calling from three times zones to the east. All she could say was . turn on the TV. just turn on the TV when I did , I witnessed the horror of the second tower of the world trade center collapsing . I just sat three umbfounded, my hand covering mymouth and repeated oh my ALLAH over and over. I don’t think any of us will ever fully reover from that day. But there are lessons to be learned from all horrors and one lesson we can take home is that life is, by its very nature , uncertain . many of those who died that day were investors like you and me, some ofthem the best and brightest. As we press on into the future,.i urge you to keep things the perspective . after all, what I am writing about is just money.
One can predict events in the near term with much greater accuracy than in the ;ong term . over time more varribles have more opportunity to make an impsct on our lives and on world events .and yet never in my life has it seemed so difficult to predict what will happen tomorrow , much ;ess next month . or a year from now . I am just assuming that normalcy will return to our lives and to the worlds financial markets. The remainder of this work refelects that assumption. The US Food and drug administration (FDA) The most important drug regulatory board in the world. The head is a presidential appointment that must be approved by a congressional committee. So far , there is no agrrment between president and cogress on who that shoud be. This stalemate has left the FDA adrift , with no clear leadership or direction although it continues to fuction under a status quo arrangement . the selection of the new FDAgead is perhaps the most important decision affecting the biotechnology this decade and coming decade . I hope the individual who gets the job makes good scence the highest priority . mixing science and business is sometimes awkeward other times impossible . one of themmust .at times , give way to the other. The FDA head has to strike the right balance ,so that business interests and the public interest are equally served but the best new drugs will always come from the best new scence .it seems that the FDA policy for now is to ask for more data . As results, the adages time from now new drug application to approval has increased from 12 to 18th months. Regulations are sure to change. Some biotechs have done great harm to the entire sector by rushing FDA applications. This results from poor cprporate strategy focusing too much on having the first , rather than the best, new therapy on the marke. The regulatory apparatus becomes clogged with applications with poor chances of being approved for example .i believe the FDA will become more safety –conscious , especially in light of complications that have arisen from many big –selling drugs . a few deaths linked to a specific drug are enugh to kill it. If the vast majority of patients >90 percent benefit from it.for example a treatment for high blood –cholesterol , allergedly caused a potentially life threatening compilcations called rhabdomyolysis muscle weakness in 480 patients and the deaths of a further 52 . the conditions was most noted in patients also taking germfibrozil , even though the instructions in the package advised against it. Anyway medicine company pulled the drug off the shelves , its share prie dropped by 47 perent on eutropean markets and it isnowthe target of a number of class –action lawauits . it appeared that the companys pharmaceuticals branch would be sold to another big pharma , although recent high sales of its anthrax treatments , now make that less likely.
Biologists are generally considered safe for human use because they are human compounds like proteins , but we are alsobecoming hyper –vigilant against nasty compounds such as the prions that caude creutzfeld jakob diseases , the human variant of mad –cow disease . securityof biotech products will increase in the coming years and the onus will be on companies to provide more rigorous data in support of their applications , especially safety data.
For now the FDAature from greek mythology that is part lion, part goat and part serpent. By introducing some of the humn genes responsible for protein production into other organisam . products were produced that did not stimulate an immune response. Some p will be more likely to approve for life threatening conditions such as cancer, cardiovascular , neurodegeneratives diseases e,g Alzhemers and parkinsons andthose for which there are no treatment orphan drugs . as an investot you would be wise to focus your attention on those areas first. No doubt there will be more big failure in the coming years , but there will also be more enormous successes. It is important to monitor and evaluate the politis involved with FDA and adjust your investment strategy accordingly..
The technology that will provide the greates commercial successes in the short term is monoclonalantibodies . the first developed years , were not as effective as hoped/these were the so calledmagic bullets that were going to cure cancer and other disees.
Two problems limited their early success. First , they were hard to prodiuce , purify and keep stable . second and more important , these were produced in animals usually say mice . when introduced into human patients , they were recognized as foreign and destroyed by the patients immune systems.
Both these problems have been largely overcome . while proteins are still complex and relative to DNA , quite unstable , more sophisticated methods exist of producing and purifying them.
More important , the issue of immunogenicity an immune response to foreign compounds has been resolvd by genetic engineering . the frst solution was to create chimeric things products . a chimera is a creature as I told you from greek mythology that is part lion ,part goat and part serpent by introducing some of the human genes responsible for protein production into other organisams this products were produced that did not stimulate an immune response . some protein design labs now uses advanced computer technologies to convert murine mouse antibodies into those that are 90 percent human and do not stimulates an immunogenic response. In the early 1980s , researachers at hsrvard university invented the xenomouse , now owned by some one , whih generates 100 percent humanized antibodies.
Lot of things invented to controlled immunopower. If we can controlled our immune power probale we can live 900 years like the prophets Nuhas time peoples lived.
Monoclonal antibody therapies are particularly important in targeting specific cell types based on specific cell surface molecules . this is useful because many hostile and unhealthy cells , such as cancer cells,express molecules that are abnormal and peculiar to thosehostile cells . thesme products bind to the ailing cells. Which neutralize them. Themn produce cell killing molecules and attract white blood cells to destroy the cancer cells. Furthermore , some products an be produced to bind to specific molecules in the human body that are responsible for diseases , particularly diseases proteins .
Proteomics identifies diseases proteins that can be targeted and neutralized by some products . exploiting the discoveries of the human genome projects the success of proteomics companies will translate directly into further successs in the new product sector. Finally dsome products are effective diagnostic tools. A common example is the home pregnancy test , which targets human chorionic gonadotrophin . a protein that is produced only by a fertilized embryo and makes its way into the urine.
Other technologies will produce new drugs in the next two to five years . new therapeutic proteins will make their way onto the market and big pharma and some biotech’s will press on with small –molecules compounds. I recommend focus sings the biotech protein of yours portfolio on companies developing drugs for serious diseases and or unmet needs, with a weighting toward monoclonal antibodies. This is the technology that will create the greatest wealth in the biotech sector in the short term.
Another greatest problems the world human being will suffere with new virous that is coming surely next year 2022 -2023 may be at end 2025 from the ice burg . the ice is melting global melting environmental changing from that part new virus will come out and we neeed to creat new vaccine drugs or dring that can increage our immune power but actually we cant kill them as a whole but at least we have to create powerful our immune system that we can survive to fight agaist them.this is technology that will create the greates wealth biotehnoology companies.so try hard scientist from Bangladesh , we tried first you will be rischest country of the world. Why I am telling to Bangladesh because bangladehi people are hard worker ,Bangladeshi scientist are intelleigent Bangladeshi primimnister sheikh hasina is the country developer .we have to be big fish to kill the little fish as we know the big fish eat the little fish . we arebengali people loves to eat fish ,we have lot of phosrous in our brain let try to invent most powerful doses to increase immunopower in our bodies that we can fight and survive.
At time of writing this work there is still considearable volatile and insecurity in worlds economic conditions lot of died due to corona ,no ork no jobs no foods no cths no medicienes no shelter no medical assistance ,people became poor and poorer . the world has never faced such a war against corona more dangerous war even people cansheleter from htler army but no body can hide from the covid-19 army..but this is going to make it tougher for biotechs to raise money but the fortune came due discover new vaccines for covid -19. They will have to depend more on bond issues and other financial vehicles to get cash the need. Well managed biotechs used the inflated markets of the to raise money aand are flush with cash . some even have as much or more cash than their total market capitalizations , which effectively values their entire technology at zero dollars. As aresults some very good bargains their renrire technology at are now available for investors.
Now a drug ost is very high one of the most important issuses relating to the future use of biotech products and the least discussed is their cost. You know take remicade for example developed by johnson and jognson susidary centocor remicade is a monoclonal –antibody therapy that works by binding to an important inflammatory biochemical called tumar necrosis factor alpha . this prevents or limits the harmful inflammation associated with debilitating chronic diseases like cron’s and rheumatoid arthritis. It works so well for some arthritis patients that they have hailed it as miracle drugs there are two drawbacks to remicade , first it has to be infused by intravenous injectin. This might be viewed as minor inconvenience but is more troublesome than taking a pill with your morning orange juice .the infusions have to be repeated every six weeks or so to maintain a sufficient level of in the system then there is the cost 4000 USD.per treatment .thats is about 40,000 per year aftr taxses clearly the average age person cant afford that expenses and it is questionable whether state or private health insurance companies will cover it on the other hand there are more than a million millionaires in the US. Alone who could ,if necessary absorb the cost for themselves and their families.the reason for the high cost is that this type of drug depends on cuttings edge technology, which focuses more on making new discoveries than on cost effective discoveries . it is also a biologic protein and proteins are notoriously unstable and difficult , if not impossible , to purify . that’s why big pharma like small –molecule compounds they can mass produce large quantities of the chemical with high purity and high stability at relatively low cost. Most big pharma drugs cost pennies to few dollars per dose to manufacture the reatest part of their drugs cost can be attributed to development and marketing, biologieare difficult to produce in large quantities,which means that demand exceeds supply . basic economics dictates rising prices charging what the market will bear. Green techs herceptin is another , which effectively treats a specific type of metastatic brest caner .the company simly cant make enough to meet the deman at present , so patiets are put on waiting lists for the therapy. If you were on a aiting list for a potentially life saving therapeutic , how much would you be willing to pay? Just abut anythings I will wager, competttion and ingenuity will , in the long term. Combine to find a solution to this problems. In the years to come , new advances in manufacturing will shorten production time and cost. If we consider cost declines in other technology sectors , such as telecommunications and computers, it is conceivable that adequate supplies of biologies will be produced at about one tenth of todays cost and much of that savings will be passed on to the consumer.
Another greatest problems facing the mens life about the ED problems but there are lot of mediies orla and injections theraphy but problems reining same vigra etc and lot of natural vitamins companies taking advantages but 99 % medicies and treatment is false.thooug some extends workable but there is no effective results either side effect either trouble some erections and pain and discomfort no satisfaction at all they are earning lot of problems and taking advances mens weekness.here need to discover effective medicies .biotechnology can solve thease problems if effective medicies can discover but there is big problems.when and how it will be discover.anothers greatest problems after prostate cancer surgery men loses his ability to ejaculate for babies .but he forever loses this ability ,need to solve this probles .this is very pathetic.may be infuture it will be solved.
Oneday man may one place to another place with their goods materials by some forces or light energy to convert them enegy .infutre it may possible scientist wishes.anyway we have to wait for that discovery .matreial sciences and information technology now is much more discover but main biological probles still we are elementary stages to discover and solve human heath problems.we took whole years to discover covid vaccine but already millions peoles dies.every day new virus infectious disesese will come out cause of due to global warming and environtal problems. We have lot of jobs to solve lot of health issuses.
Advances in technology will decrease the time it takes to develop drugs .in general , hronic diseases such as cardiovascular disese or cancer worsen over time . public demand for new therapies will increase and the tolerance for delay will decline . growing numbers of aging , wealthy north Americans will pressure governments and their regulatory administration . at the end of the day , the public usually gets what it wants. Of course , drug companies , too would very much like to sho very much like to shorten development time. For them , it means getting products to competitive markets as soon as possible , whih maximize near term profit. These principal factors delay products development technology clinical trials and regulatory consideration. as mentioned above . I have no doubt technology will make drug –target discovery and drug design much speedier already we have seen high throughput screening now even super high throughput screening and computer –assisted drug design contribute greatly to this end.clinical trials however are another story.the sucees or failure of a drug in clinical trials is measured by robust statistical analysis of predetermined clinical endpoints. That means that the number of patients in the trials should be as large as possible and they should be observed for as long as possible. Therefore , clinicians must trade off these factors against the cost and duration of the trials. Although we might see some improvements here as advances in genotyping techniques, for example , screen clinical candidates more carefully its unlikely that the trials themselves can be shortend significantly . science shuldnot be rushed. But the regulatory process can be greatly improved. This requitres an expression of public will demanding that more resources be allowed to the regulatory process , since the best way to speed it up while safeguarding public safety is to put more people to work claring the backlog.
Today the development of a typical drus between 10 to 15 years , if by the end of this decade that period has been reduced to between five and 10 years , I would condider the otcme a huge success and and a great benefit to both the industry and the consymer. Whatever happens it is vitally important that safety is not compromised by expendiency. Messing about with human physiology is an extremely business aove all , we must have assurance that dugs are safe and effective.that means supporting regulatory oards with sufficient financial resurces and scientific know –how to watch over the dug development process for us.
About the sexy staff as I mentioned early but here I like to say that about the middle of this decade we will witness a strom of new biotech products coming onto the market. Many of these will be applicsations of decade –old technologies but some will be very new, very exciting technologies functional genomics and proteomics will identify thousands more potential drugs targets companies will apply all maner of technologies to develop drugs for those targets of those technologies I thimks there will prevail in the long term gene therapy ,immunotherapy and antisense.
Identification of disease –related proteins and the genes that make them will become obvious drug targets . gene therapy would probably involve the use of a viral vector to deliver the repair genes to the target cells. The problems inherent in this method , immunogenicity the sbility of the bodys immune system to destroy the viral vectors and recognition of the target cells will have to be overcome .i think within the next decade or so, biotech researchers wil have solved those problems.
Immunotherapy makes target cells more apparent to the immune systems . the best applications will be the development of cancer vaccines . the first generation treatments already in development involve the removal of cancer cells from the patient , irradiating them to prevent further growth and then releasing the cancer cells back into the patient to stimulate an immune attack against tumours . the next generation will employ viral vectors that will make cancer cells express more of their atypical cell –surface markers. Then the immune system will have an easier time identifying and destroying the tumers.
Antisence is already becoming a profitable new avenue for drug development . by synthesizing RNA compounds that bind to neutralize active abnormal DNA segments and RNA molecules , antisense drugs promise to be a highly effective treatment with virtually no side effects . since the RNA drugs are custom –made to bind only to genetic materials that is propmoting the diseases changes , antisence drugs can target and eliminate the problems at its source , without adversely affecting the host cell.
Results and Discussions : Biotechnology
Increasingly , technologies are affording us the opportunity to replace more and more of our own body parts. Although we all do. Inevitably , grow older , our parts don’t all wear out at the same time. Sometimes the brain goes first , sometimes the heart , sometimes the kidneys . transplant technologies have enabled us to replace worn –out bits with newer ones. Either organic ones as in heart thransplants or inorganic as in hip replacements .although initially condemned by many as as scientist said FRANKENSTEIN science , transplants ans replacements are now part of everyday medical treatment.
How far we want to take this will be one of the great ethical debates of this century .it has already started . on august 27 , 2001 , the bush administration identified 64 embryonic stem –cells lines as eligible for US federal research grants. that doesnot mean that other lines canot be researched ,but that the researchers of those lines must find their own funding . although president bush had to balance some americans religious belief against scientific gain , there is little doubt that stem –cell research will proceed in the U.S and elsewhere in the world. In fact , most of the cell lines identified as eligible reside in aboratories outside the U.S . eventually , I belive , steam –cell research will become as common place as genomics is today.
The reason that steam –cell research is so attractive is that it promises to grow new healthy tissue and perhaps even entire organs , in much the same way that mother nature does already . we all begin life as a single fertilized egg cell. Which then divides again and aain until it forms a ball of cells , called steam cells. At that point the cells are indistingguishedable from each other , but as the body developes , they differentiate to become one of more than 200 mature tissue types combined as adut organs. That is why they are called steam cells . all adult tissues steam from them.
The motion behind steam cell research is that , if we can figure out how it works in the first place , perhaps we can replace damaged and worn out tissuses and organs with freash ones. Also because of what we have learned about cloning those new tissues can be grown from cells with the patients own genome. In effect , rather than having wait for someone to die tragically in order to get a foreign replacement heart , you can have a new one of your own made.
Global locations of steam –cell lines eligible for USA research funding.
Locations Number of steam –cells lines Remarks
1. Sweden 24 Success rate is low
2. United states 16 Not yet any positive results
3. India 10 failure
4. Australia 6 failure
5. Israel 4 Not satisfactory
6. Other 4 no news yet
Development of this medical technology will play out in stages . the first will be replacement tissuses for diseases as Alzheimers parkinsons and diabetics , as well as new cartilage ,bone marrow and even new skin for burn victims. This tehnology is well under way and will put new tissues into bodies before the decade is out. By then , I reckon, transplant science will be capable of growing entire homogeneous organs, such as skin ad liver. In fact , the term transplant will be supplanted by the term tissue replacement .by the end of the next decade we will likely have entire complex organs available organ replacement. Until then ,true transplants will continue and broaden to include almost every organ in the body , except perhaps the brain itself.
The german school of psychology , gestalt hlds that in human experience , the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. In the not –too distant future , we may be exploring this in a physical sense as ultimately , we gain the ability to replace all our individual parts. If even our brains could one day be replaced , with a suoercomputer storing all our brains engrams which are then downloaded into the new brain , what is left that is truly us? Such a development might be the impetus for new branches of psychology and philosophy: what does it mean to be alive if there is no need for death?
Inorganic replacements will also progress as we learn more aout the functions of our bodies tissuses and organs. We already have devices and treatments for our special senses : for the eyes , we have glasses contacts control reshaping for the ears ,we have hearing aids and cochlear implants. Soon we will be implanting microsprocessors into faulty eyes and ears allowing the blind to see and the deaf to hear. We will also be producing artificial limbs that work very much like our own .by the year 2010 we will have a true six-million dollars man and that might well be the cost too.there are great problems facing the men health taking medicines alcohol injections but problems remain same for ED . men cant satisfy their women now we have penile implant and solved problems .in future scientist trying something more exciting to discover to solve erection problems .in 2015 there will be elixir of life for mens eections problems and reejaculte prostate cancer surgery able to birth baby now not.
Inorganic replacements will also progress as we learn more about the functions of our bodies tissuses and organs.we already have devices and treatments for special senses, for the eyes , we have glasses , contacts corneal reshaping for the ears we have hearing aids and cochlear implants .soon we will be implanting microprocessors into faulty eues and ears allowing the blinds to see and the deaf to hear. Erection for penile implant .we will also be producing artificial limbs that work very much like our own by the year 2015 we will have all handsome man and women.
However,late 2001 , a private company in worester Massachusetts called advanced cell technologies stunned the world when it created the first human clone. Although the embryo only grew to a microscopic ball of a few cells the experiments proved that human cloning is possible , and opened the doors for some much –needed scientific and ethical debate.
On july 31 , 2001 the US house of representative passed bipartisan legislation baning human cloning . the vote was 265 to 162, hardly a landslide.
What this suggests is that , even at the highest ranks of government , a lot of powerful people think human cloning is not a bad idea. Although I understand their rationale the potentiall to replace a lost child or create another Einstein or simply the freedom to expand human knowledge -I personaly think they are misguided. Human cloning is bad idea fraught with profound social and ethical implications . I figure that if we want to make more humans , do it the old fashioned way besides its farr more fun.
A company named geron has patents on six lines of stem cells ,but it also has somethings else in the works , geron is greek for oldman, suggesting exactly what this compny is investing aging.
The average human lifespan is now about 80 years in developed countries. That’s about how long an average set of genes will keep you going. Researchers at Harvard medical school recently conducted a genomic analysis of 137 100 year olds and found that they different from the general populations with respect to only about
Author: Dr.Sherajuli Shelley, Assistant Manager) D. MRSB. Candidate: Fellow of Royal Society Biology of the United Kingdom. Bactolac Pharmaceutical Accuon Labs Inc , NY. USA winder labs Winder labs.