Dr.Sherajuli Shelley: Human Rights and Environmental Protection and Corona VIirous and Dangerous virus and microorganisms Marching to us .by this time in different causes human rights violated and to relatibity to the environment is promotional to each other .is it focusing Albert Einstens theory of relativity” i am with my fellow scientist from ussr academemy of science , institute microbiology moscow lenisky prospect ussr.
COVID the bioscience research and training of the last month. It cannot be comprehensive and gives just a glimpse of the huge worldwide effort to understand SARS-CoV-2 and its effects.
We can all contribute to the response to COVID-19 by engaging with sound science, countering misinformation and increasing awareness. We hope our jonal is very effective to aware of thease vital problems for further studies and research.
Views or opinions presented are those of the probles arose medical and government advice should be consulted regarding personal wellbeing decisions.. In this issuses Bangladeshi prime minister sheikh hasina has taken much more initiative to free covid from Bangladeshi land and sky .i dr. s.i.shelley appreciated her goodness and ewelleing to the peoples of bangladesh
Prime minister sheikh hasina Hasina’s leadership in tackling and solving covid problems whre world leadership failed Covid-19 this case shekh hasina deserve nobel laureate or more than that she is outstanding lwoman leader in the world her contribution much more than even any man;s leadership.

We scientist praised Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina’s dynamic leadership in managing the Covid-19 pandemic and rolling out a nationwide vaccination program successfully.
Paying a courtesy call on Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina at her offnce to purchaseul “To help expedite the economic recovery from the pandemic, ADB is discussing with the government a proposal for $940 million in assistance from ADB’s APVAX Facility for Bangladesh’s vaccine program,” Emrul quoted the ADB count We appreciated the PM’s timely decision in opening help to classes of people of Bangladesh
1. including key current updates from the scientific management problems covid -19
2. Research updates and expert opinion: I tried to discsses relevant national and international research news and outputs under investigations
3. How else can the bioscience community help? resource and expertise opinion
4. Positive community news: community government impact aiding the pandemic response.
5. Other regularly updated information sources: useful journal like that we are publishhing
6. Spotlight on personal and community wellbeing: articles on mental health and wellbeing during self-isolation and social distancing.
This articles provides information’s to published new news articles from a range of sources. Views or opinions presented and the views of the microbiologis and scientist of the worlds.

RSB news
The Biologist: Tracking viral variants and pandemic press coverage
In the latest COVID interviews from The Biologist, molecular epidemiologist Emma Hodcroft explains how scientists are currently having to sample ‘the ice-cube on top of the iceberg’ when looking for significant SARS-CoV-2 variants; and the Science Media Centre’s Fiona Fox gives her view on how the press has handled the science of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Education during COVID-19
Our education policy team is working with government, awarding bodies and policy partners to provide advice and support to teachers, parents and students. These pages will be updated regularly over the coming weeks.

During the Covid-19 pandemic the RSB can offer training courses both online and in-person Training c

Research update opinion
SARS-CoV-2 is a virus in the zoonotic coronavirus family. This novel virus, discovered in 2019, was previously unidentified in humans and causes the disease COVID-19, which has since been characterized as a pandemic.

SARS-CoV-2 virus characteristics
Coronavirus: Bat scientists find new evidence
scientist all over the world report from scientists saying that corona viruses related to Sars-CoV-2 may be circulating in bats across many parts of Asia. Evidence that chinease people eating bats and most of asian country people drinking dates jucie where jar was holding on date trees bat , snake comes to the jar and sucking date juice and contaminated . people drinking without sterilizing because it very natural testing .

What are the Brazil, South Africa and UK variants and will vaccines work?
A Covid variant first identified in Brazil has been found in the UK. Public health officials are investigating six cases and are using testing to see if it has spread to more people. Some variants, like this one, appear to be more contagious and there are concerns current vaccines may not work as well, as I understood theae are not workable after that people also died .

we have to work out projects “Tracking viral mutations to understand SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology and evolution”
we have to research on the importance of understanding the spread of COVID-19 variants to overcome the pandemic.

New projects have to performed that Emergence in late 2020 of multiple lineages of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein variants affecting amino acid position 677
In this preprint in medRxiv, the authors describe how their findings demonstrate simultaneous convergent evolution, thus providing an impetus to further evaluate S:677 polymorphisms for effects on proteolytic processing, cell tropism, and transmissibility.

COVID-19 pathophysiology
World’s first coronavirus Human Challenge study receives ethics approval in the UK
The Government has stated that up to 90 volunteers aged 18 – 30 years will be exposed to COVID-19 in a safe and controlled environment to increase understanding of how the virus affects people.

Immunology and COVID-19 Taskforce briefing note: Immunity and COVID-19 (PDF, 203KB)
As the leading membership organisation representing immunologists, the British Society for Immunology has established an expert taskforce that is able to collate and review what is currently known about the immunology of COVID-19. In the latest in the Taskforce’s series of briefing notes, questions around immunity and COVID-19 are discussed. Immunity, induced by both natural infection and through vaccination, will be key to our ability to exit the current pandemic.

Evolution of antibody immunity to SARS-CoV-2
Nature has published an article and reports on the author’s findings that immune system remembers how to make antibodies that can fend off the new coronavirus for at least six months after the initial infection.

How ‘killer’ T cells could boost COVID immunity in face of new variants
In the race against emerging coronavirus variants, researchers are looking beyond antibodies for clues to lasting protection from COVID-19, reports Nature News.

‘Coronavirus Reinfection Will Soon Become Our Reality’ reports The Atlantic
The Atlantic describes how the virus can take many paths to reinvading a person’s body, declaring that most of them shouldn’t scare us.

The disease-resistant patients exposing Covid-19’s weak spots
Some people are unusually resilient to the coronavirus, so scientists are now searching their genes and blood in the hope of finding the pandemic’s Achilles’ heel, reports BBC Future.

Epidemiology and public health response
The impact of reopening schools on SARS-CoV-2 transmission in England
New modelling suggests reopening schools fully could increase the R number to above 1, reports LSHTM news.

Superspreading drives the COVID pandemic – and could help to tame it
Uneven transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has had tragic consequences – but also offers clues for how best to target control measures, reported in Nature News Feature.

Transmission of COVID-19 in 282 clusters in Catalonia, Spain: a cohort study
The authors of is study, published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, describe how the viral load of index cases was a leading driver of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. The risk of symptomatic COVID-19 was strongly associated with the viral load of contacts at baseline and shortened the incubation time of COVID-19 in a dose-dependent manner.

Covid: Why goal is to live with the virus – not fight it
The government says it hopes to make Covid a manageable disease like flu, reports the BBC.

The coronavirus is here to stay – here’s what that means
A Nature survey shows many scientists expect the virus that causes COVID-19 to become endemic, but it could pose less danger over time.

Establishing the National Institute for Health Protection
On 18 August 2020, the Health and Social Care Secretary, Matt Hancock, announced the establishment of the National Institute for Health Protection (NIHP). The NIHP brings together the health protection and resilience functions of Public Health England (PHE), the Joint Biosecurity Centre (JBC – which provides data and advice on Covid-19 infection outbreaks) and NHS Test and Trace. This House of Commons Insight looks at what is known so far about the new body and reaction from the health sector, ahead of it being formally established in spring 2021. Most functions confirmed to be moving to the NIHP relate to either managing the current Covid-19 outbreak or preparations for future epidemics and emergencies.

Citizens Panel says Scottish Government must set out its Covid-19 strategy
A panel of the public convened by the Scottish Parliament’s Covid-19 Committee has today reported its findings to MSPs.

European Parliament plenary highlights: Covid-19 recovery, vaccines, circular economy
MEPs approved the EU’s key instrument to help countries recover from Covid-19, debated the vaccines situation and called for tighter recycling rules.

EU is right place to tackle pandemic, but reform is needed, latest survey finds
The Covid-19 pandemic has strengthened citizens’ beliefs that the European Union is the right place to develop effective solutions to tackle its effects, reports European Parliament News.

COVID-19: MEPs want to ensure developing countries’ access to vaccines
COVID-19 vaccines should be produced also in developing countries to overcome the pandemic, development MEPs told Commissioner Urpilainen on 4th of February 2021.

High level of public support for strict COVID control measures but much lower level of trust in Government
New survey finds 52% of UK public thought Government was doing a good job of controlling the virus at the start of the first wave, reports LSHTM news.

Local and national restrictions in England reduced contacts in small and varied ways
Measures between August to December 2020 had smaller reductions than those in March, reports LSHTM news.

Why did the world’s pandemic warning system fail when COVID hit?
Nearly one year ago, the World Health Organization sounded the alarm about the coronavirus, but was ignored, reports Nature News.

Testing and ongoing surveillance
Understanding the ‘UK’ variant: How the ONS is monitoring the new strain of Covid-19
In mid-November 2020, a new variant of the coronavirus (COVID-19) was identified in the UK. For several weeks afterwards the Office for National Statistics (ONS) reported positive cases they called “compatible with the new variant” alongside all other positive cases. Now the new variant has become an established part of the pandemic picture they are updating our reporting of it.

UK finds more coronavirus cases with ‘concerning’ mutations
Public Health England is investigating cases of coronavirus with ‘worrying’ new genetic changes that have been found in some regions of the UK.

Contact-tracing apps help reduce COVID infections, data suggest
Evaluations find apps are useful, but would benefit from better integration into health-care systems, reports Nature News.

Prophylaxis and treatment
SARS-CoV-2 evolution during treatment of chronic infection
Nature has published an article and reports on the author’s description of a case where antibody treatment for COVID-19 seems to have spurred mutations in SARS-CoV-2 that infected a man with a compromised immune system. The potential for viral evolution means that convalescent plasma should be used cautiously when treating people with compromised immunity.

Tocilizumab reduces deaths in patients hospitalised with COVID-19
The Randomised Evaluation of COVID-19 Therapy (RECOVERY) trial has demonstrated that an anti-inflammatory treatment, tocilizumab, reduces the risk of death when given to hospitalised patients with severe COVID-19. The study also showed that tocilizumab shortens the time until patients are successfully discharged from hospital and reduces the need for a mechanical ventilator.

Preventive blood thinning drugs could reduce COVID hospital deaths
New evidence suggests these common preventive therapies may help alleviate pressure on hospitals and save lives, reports LSHTM news.

Covid vaccines extremely safe, finds UK regulator
BBC reports: covid vaccines being given to millions of people in the UK are extremely safe, with mild expected side-effects, says the country’s drugs regulator.

Report of the Commission on Human Medicines Expert Working Group on COVID-19 vaccine safety surveillance
In May 2020, the Commission on Human Medicines established an Expert Working Group (EWG) to advise the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) on its safety monitoring strategy for COVID-19 vaccine(s). The EWG held four meetings from May to October 2020, during which it considered proposals and methodologies for MHRA-led vigilance activities. Based on this advice, the MHRA has developed, and now has in place, a four-stranded approach to vigilance, which is summarised in this report.

MHRA research and analysis: Coronavirus vaccine – weekly summary of Yellow Card reporting
This report covers the period 9 December 2020 to 14 February 2021.

COVID vaccines and safety: what the research says
It is clear that coronavirus vaccines are safe and effective, but as more are rolled out, researchers are learning about the extent and nature of side effects, reports this Nature News Explainer.

Delivery to Ghana is the first in an ambitious global vaccination drive
The New York Times reports on the global sharing program designed to make vaccine access more equal delivered its first major shipment of doses on Wednesday to the West African nation of Ghana, ramping up the largest mass immunization campaign in history.

Unprotected African health workers die as rich countries buy up COVID-19 vaccines
AAAS Science published this article on February 17th 2021, reporting on how countries in Europe, Asia, and the Americas had at the time administered more than 175 million shots to protect people against COVID-19 since December 2020, with most countries giving priority to medical workers. But not a single country in sub-Saharan Africa had started immunizations – South Africa was to be the first, that week—leaving health care workers dying in places where they are scarce to begin with.

Why COVID vaccines are so difficult to compare
Despite the widespread roll-out of several vaccines, it could be months before they can be ranked, reports Nature News.

Can COVID vaccines stop transmission? Scientists race to find answers
Controlling the pandemic will require shots that prevent viral spread, but that feature is difficult to measure.

Escaping Catch-22 – Overcoming Covid Vaccine Hesitancy
An article in the New England Journal of Medicine interviews Heidi Larson, Director of the Vaccine Centre at LSHTM, on how COVID-19 may present an opportunity to rethink our approach to vaccine uptake.

TB vaccine may protect newborns against other infectious diseases
New study “raises hopes” that the BCG vaccination could be used against COVID-19 infection, reports LSHTM news.

Vaccine-wary France turns to citizens’ panel to boost trust in COVID-19 shots
AAAS Sciece reports on how, all across Europe, coronavirus vaccines are in scarce supply. But in France, they are also surprisingly unwanted: Recent polls suggest just 57% of the country intends to get vaccinated, whereas in the United Kingdom, 89% wants to get a shot for COVID-19.

How else can the bioscience community help?
COVID-19 resources from the community
An RSB webpage with links to COVID-19 initiatives and resources available from other bioscience organisations and the wider community. This page is being updated regularly and if you would like to suggest additional content please send us an email.

National lockdown: Stay at Home
Coronavirus cases are rising rapidly across the country. Find out what you can and cannot do according to this Government guidance.

What’s the roadmap for lifting lockdown?
BBC reports on how the ‘roadmap’ for easing Covid restrictions in England has been announced.

Download the NHS COVID-19 app
The NHS COVID-19 app aims to help control coronavirus (COVID-19) transmission. People across England and Wales are being asked to download the NHS COVID-19 app to help control the spread of coronavirus and protect themselves and their loved ones as case numbers rise.

Researching factors affecting ethnic minority groups during COVID-19
UK researchers are to dig deeper into the reasons why people from Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic backgrounds have been disproportionately affected by COVID-19.

BSI guide to vaccinations for COVID-19
The British Society for Immunology has published a new vaccination guide on COVID-19 vaccines for the public. This resource explains how vaccines work and answers common questions and concerns and provides up-to-date information on the current approved COVID-19 vaccinations in the UK. The public may have specific questions regarding COVID-19 vaccines and that’s why BSI have created a free, easy to read guide on vaccinations for COVID-19 suitable for a public audience. Sharing of this guide is encouraged.

Covid-19 vaccines: information hub
Vaccines are one of the best tools for overcoming Covid-19. This is a collection of quick and simple resources on how Covid-19 vaccines work, how we know they’re safe, and how they can be distributed to everyone around the world, put together by Wellcome.

Top 10 COVID-19 vaccine myths
An article by Understanding Animal Research (UAR) aims to counter misinformation.

The superspreaders behind top COVID-19 conspiracy theories
The Associated Press collaborated with the Atlantic Council’s Digital Forensic Research Lab on a nine-month investigation to identify the people and organizations behind some of the most viral misinformation about the origins of the coronavirus.

Disgraced COVID-19 studies are still routinely cited
In June 2020, in the biggest research scandal of the pandemic so far, two of the most important medical journals each retracted a high-profile study of COVID-19 patients. Thousands of news articles, tweets, and scholarly commentaries highlighted the scandal, yet many researchers apparently failed to notice. In an examination of the most recent 200 academic articles published in 2020 that cite those papers, Science found that more than half—including many in leading journals—used the disgraced papers to support scientific findings and failed to note the retractions.

We need a green recovery after COVID-19, but banning wildlife trade could do more harm than good
Writing for The Conversation, Hollie Booth, PhD Candidate, Conservation Science, University of Oxford, shares results of a study that indicates large-scale prohibitions on wildlife use could have negative consequences for nature and human health.

Invitation from the Valuing Nature Network to participate in a study on the impacts of COVID-19 on human wellbeing and interactions with coastal nature
If you live in or near coastal areas Valuing Nature Network invites you to participate in a research study exploring the impacts of COVID-19 on people’s wellbeing and interactions with coastal nature, by completing an anonymous survey and forwarding it to others living in or near coastal areas.

Contact RSB to discuss bioscience community issues or actions via

Positive community news
Massive Google-funded COVID database will track variants and immunity
Open repository will give free access to more than 160 million data points with details about individual infections, reports Nature News.

Protecting your Data at ONS during COVID-19
The ONS we are working all year round to ensure the nation’s data is kept safely. This blog recaps how the ONS’ security has been able to adapt and improve during the pandemic.

Other regularly updated information sources
Additional COVID-19 resources
An RSB webpage collating other regularly updated resources on COVID-19.

[WHO] Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) Situation Dashboard
WHO COVID-19 situation dashboard.

Coronavirus COVID-19 Global Cases by Johns Hopkins CSSE
COVID-19 case dashboard. open repository and visualisation platform
An international database tracking anonymised information about individual COVID-19 cases.

Spotlight on personal and community wellbeing
Research investigates COVID-19 impact on UK farmer mental health
The COVID-19 pandemic’s impact on the mental health and resilience of farmers and farm workers will be the focus of new research led by University of Reading. The project is receiving £190,000 funding from the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) as part of UK Research and Innovation’s (UKRI) rapid response to COVID-19.

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our environment is totally changes ,the place never imagine for rain now falling snow , where never thinking awith out snow now disappearing snow. Nobody ever enjoy chrismass day or happy new year with out snow now no snow at all .everythings happening because we are violating human rights and for get about envirionmental protection. If environment is protected • One of those mosquitoes entered into the nostrils of the king (namrud). Allah punished him by it, and he was in so much pain that he would continually hit his head against objects (hoping to make

COVID -19 GOLD MEDALS 2019 AND ASEPTICALLY WEARING MASK Most people would agree that just talking about the problems have caused most of the major problems , so people must look for solutions .one step toward finding solutions is changing peoples values and attitudes toward the environment if environment is clean and nice there is chance to grow corona or any fatal virus whisch are cause of our deaths.a persons values are made up of the relatives worth or importance the persons places on things. A person’s attitude is a feeling oremotion toward a fact pr an activirt. The following example might help us to better understand these terms
Values and attitude are related. Values help people decide what they think about think is important .peole who think that eagles are a danger to their sheep may think nothing of shooting the worlds the worlds last eagle. But people who think eagles are a danger to their sheep may think nothing of shooting the worlds last eagle. But people who thinking of eagles aaaaaaaare importanttime. Efforts and money to protect them .however the solutions to environment and virus problems are not easy to find . to find solutions to environmental and virus problems people have to look to find . to find solutions to environmental solutions t environmeemtal oroblems . peope are not easy to find. To find solutions to environmrental problems .people have to look closely at each problems such an effort an effort can be successsful only if peole undrstand all the issues that surrounded a problems .one they undrstand the issues , people can decide how the problems should be solved . sometimes environmental and contamination problems are not easy to solve because the issues are involved with business ,industry and culturals meting . dances , studies etc and our immediate needs but cause of covid -19 SAID : STOP and STOP and STOP.
During the past 50 years after independended of bangladesh from pakistan many fresh water and marsh and swamp areas of the bangladesh have been filled in. they been used for dumps housing projects and airports such facilities are necessary and important but swamps and marshes provides breeding grounds for many different kinds of animals some of these animals forms important parts of foods webs. Check with local authorities to see if any swanp of marsh areasin BOSTI Oof poor people in your areas have been filled if so, how is the land being used now?do you think the land is being usedwisely. They are lot of contaminations.
Corona can damages her every beauty so becareful.
the mosquito exit or simply because of sheer madness that resulted from the pain) until he finaly died
this type of mosqueto destroy namrud civilization the babylian culture and civilization because abnormal activitites of namrud and his peoples at last the disarmed week mosquito enter into nose of namrud and namrud died left his big empire and 10 thousand wifes and wealth.
The world will be protected and human right will be fullfiled but alas already we late. Waith for masss destruction and waith for new virus coming from Siberia antracrtica and other areas of the world and through animal and humsans,time will come you cant eat anythingseven food crises already in developing and poorcountries are goin on without food lot of people dying government reporting falsifying lot of people dying with out food and with corona .very soon developed country will face lot of problems infectious diseases ,skin diseases some where willbroke out fire somewhere will broke out snow and cold and people and animal will die .wait ladies and gentleman. There will be remain perfect ladies and gentleman all will be suffer with dangerous diseases.honestly speaking world leadership has been failed to bring peace prosperity and happinies to their respective peoples .influences of bad leader the world present day civilization would be, this is about my prophesy.i am not Nostradamus nor astrologer nor a religious spiritual or GOD’s Messenger I am very simple and knows very well environtal protection and human rights.
The king Abraha and his kingdom was destroy by little bird Ababil. No big elephants save him. Such virus mearching towards us no neclor weapons and modern arm cant save us from the virus .we already proof it and now we are waiting dangerous virus and anaerobic bacteria are coming to us , no scientist , no chemist and no microbiologist or biologist and we microbiologist environmentalist and immunologist and virologist don’t know prepared almighty GOD will destroy us by sending to us more small virus than mosquito and that was killed by Namrud.same LUT and HUD and moses peiod and nohas period lot of civilization destroyed because people disobey God and follow anti logic way life style and destroy environments . so we are waiting for dangerous virus no neoclear weapons no moder weapons and arms or chemical weapons cant save us .
Now snow is melting from syberiya lot of virus and bacteria was under thease snow , even we the scientist don’t what are they how to prevent their growth and save our life. One corona virus we becamome puzzle to decide what to do but we control thousands of million virus coming towards us , how we solve the problems.we can prepared attach each other country without any thinking but we cant decide what type of weapons we will use to destroy thease type of virus and bacteria that we are going to fight to save our modern civilization
Same things happened with king abraha thease type little bird named Ababil destroy his full kingdom and killed his elephant arm forces . we have to realize what ugly things we are doing , gay .lesbian , rape hijack robbery killing msaking womren to be naked came to works showing peep show ,showing full naked women like animal moneky show business.please wait Ababil or mosquieto comimg or small virus coming or one celledwith many spore formimg anaerobic bacteria is coming from syberiya..
People probably thought that the environment was constant and would never change . it’s easy to understand why they might have hadsuch ideas.long ago the air was clear and always smelled clean.nobody thought that the air was clear and always smelled clean. Nobody thought that the atmospheare migh change . nor did anyone know how factories and cars could pollut the air.
It was our practice We used our pants shirts and sari and skirt etc to cover our bodies but time comes we have to regularly use our mask as usual our daily uses dress.we people hate each other we creted distance peoples each other by color. By race by good bad and ugly. Sometimes husband keeps distances from wifes and wifes make distance husbands but now GOD makes you people distances by marching corona. Now if you are going a road , you found two way to go your destinations. Suddenly you see a dangerous snake is coming one way and other way coming a man or women with mask or without mask. Which way you like to select to go? But my suggestions go that way where sanake is coming. Now we are each other danger than snake.

A virus is a submicroscopic infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of an organism. Viruses infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea. Since Dmitri Ivanovsky’s 1892 article describing a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants and the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, more than 6,000 virus species have been described in detail of the millions of types of viruses in the environment. Viruses are found in almost every ecosystem on Earth and are the most numerous type of biological entity. The study of viruses is known as virology, a subspeciality of microbiology.
Coronaviruses are a group of related RNA viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. In humans and birds, they cause respiratory tract infections that can range from mild to lethal. Mild illnesses in humans include some cases of the common cold, while more lethal varieties can cause SARS, MERS,
Beach is a smart place to meet people close to close with half naked , almost showing every parts of body .at last authority understood and close this naked show business. Peole changes that were not planned .many of the changes that people have made in the environment have been made by accident as people have tried to do one helpflthings for themselves, it seems that they have caused problems as well. The following examples might help explain how some problems caused.
Procupines and oyther smoll animals .pine trease and other trees and large minklike animals known as fishers live one time ,most of this areas was covered by great stands of pine trees but porcupines damaged many of young pine trees by chewing on them.fishers used to keep the porcupine populations under control by preying on porcupines but people began trapping fishers to obtain their fur for use in making coats .as the fishers population decreased , the population of porcupines increased you can imagine the porcupines soon caused a great deal of dameges to the young pine trees..
WE ARE NOW IN THE UNDER THE KING DARJAL THE GREAT NAMED BY COVID19 SAID FA NYITHFULLY MIS ASHA Yet again, the world is experiencing a global viral epidemic of zoonotic origin. As of Feb 12, 45 204 confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and 1116 deaths had been reported in 25 countries. The majority of cases and, at the time of writing, all but one death have been in China, despite efforts in the country to halt transmission through shutting down transport, quarantining entire cities, and enforcing the use of face masks. International flights have been cancelled and affected cruise ships quarantined. At this stage, it is unclear whether the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 outbreak will run its course, as SARS-CoV did in 2003, or will become an endemic cause of viral pneumonia.
In our January issue we announced the formation of The Lancet Infectious Diseases Commission on Preparedness for Emerging Epidemic Threats. The Commission will revisit global preparedness planning and assumptions underlying agreements such as the International Health Regulations. It aims to account for new challenges in preparing for and responding to infectious disease outbreaks. These challenges, which are political and institutional, social, environmental, technological, and pathogen-related, are being brought to the foreground by the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak.
One issue is how prepared the world’s health systems are to respond to an outbreak of this scale. It’s clear the large number of cases of COVID-19 is testing the health system in China. Yet, China was able to build a hospital for affected patients in a matter of days. No other country could mobilise resources and manpower at such speed. While health systems in high-income countries would be stretched by the outbreak, the most devastating effects would be in countries with weak health systems, ongoing conflicts, or existing infectious disease epidemics. In these countries, it is imperative to rapidly detect and contain the virus at points of entry to prevent community transmission and health systems from being overwhelmed. Health authorities in Africa are on high alert for the virus, given the continent’s extensive trade and transport links with Asia. The capacity in Africa to screen, isolate, and treat patients and perform contact tracing is being built under the leadership of the Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention and WHO.
As in all outbreaks, there is an urgent need to develop effective diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. Several experimental diagnostic platforms are already in use in China and elsewhere. The whole-genome sequence of SARS-CoV-2 had been obtained and shared widely by mid-January, a feat not possible at such speed in previous infectious disease outbreaks. This sequence will allow fine-tuning of existing technologies and development of better diagnostics and targeted therapeutics. Several potential treatments have been proposed, including a Janus kinase inibitor known as baricitinib. However, no antiviral treatment has been approved for coronaviruses, and despite two outbreaks of novel coronaviruses in the past two decades, vaccine development is still in its infancy. WHO has announced that a vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 should be available in 18 months, but achieving this will require funding and public interest to be maintained even if the threat level falls.
Social media and sensationalist reporting are challenging outbreak response efforts. Misinformation and conspiracy theories spread on social media have generated panic and mistrust among the general public, diverted attention away from the outbreak response, and impeded the activities of health-care workers. WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus said WHO is tackling the spread of false information with a “four-pronged approach”, including using its WHO Information Network for Epidemics platform to track misinformation in multiple languages and collaborating with social and digital companies such as Facebook, Weibo, and Twitter to filter out false information.
How prepared the world was for the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak will surely be discussed in its aftermath. The initial response in China to contain the virus was applauded by WHO and considered much improved compared with its response to the 2003 SARS-CoV epidemic. Internationally, we have seen rapid generation and sharing of knowledge to the benefit of the outbreak response, but also counterproductive actions by some countries, including limiting trade and shutting of borders, to its detriment. With the increasing frequency of zoonotic spillovers leading to human infections and transmission, it’s apparent that pandemic preparedness has become a priority for the global health agenda.
As we know at one time most of the worlds rivers and streams were filled with clear clean water, as forests are cut down. However erosion washes millions of tons of mud into waterways. In addition , people into waterways , the oxygen in the water is used by the decomposers in the water to break this material down. But this cuts down the amount of oxygen available tp other organisams I the water. Without enough oxygen ,fish and other organisams in the water soon die,
And as aresults virus came to our door. So STOP? .
Solutions projects to save our environment poisonous pathogens free microorganisams and viruses or specially corona virus . if environment houses roards inside and outside are clean properly and allow to grows trees every ench of unused lands we can solve thousands of diseases that people would be protected .
Government shoud take following projects stop spread infectious pathogens:
Here is some possible solutions:
a major problems facing the world today is ho to grow enough food without harming the environment .in order to have enough food, people have to find a way to protect foodcrops from pests . insecticides and other chemicals are not the answer because they often harm other life.for tis reason scientists have been trying the develop other ways of controlling insects pests/.possibly the best means of control is biologic control biologic control involves the the use of natural hoemones to control insects reproduction . hormonesmay also be used to change the time that insects undergo matamprphosis or theway they undergo it. Biologists have also found that certain viruses and bacteria can be used to attack insects methods such as thesedo not make permanent chamges in natural cycles or in the food webs of theenvironment.
Another solutions to the food problems mught be found in locating new sources of food . chemists and biologist are working together to see if petroleum can be used to produce food, they have found that certain bacteruia grow well and reproduce rapidly using petroleum as food. .it may be possible to harvest these bacteria and use them as a rich source of proten and vitamins.

Author: Dr.Sherajuli Shelley Assistant Manager) D. MRSB. Candidate: Fellow of Royal Society Biology of the United Kingdom. Bactolac Pharmaceutical Accuon Labs Inc , NY. USA winder labs Winder labs.


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